At the origin of Dubrovnik, there was a settlement called Epidaurus (later Cavtat, in the Konavle region), a former Greek colony that fell to the hands of the Romans in 228 BC. In the 7th century AD, the population of Epidaurus fled due to the Avar and Slav invasions and took refuge on the rocky promontory of Laus (present-day Dubrovnik).
There they build a city named Ragusium which they place under the protection of Byzantium, following the marine attacks of the Arabs in the 8th and 9th centuries. Ramparts were then added to Ragusa. In the 12th century, it united with its neighbor from the other side: Dubrava, which was populated by Slavs. The tiny stretch of sea that separated Dubrava from Ragusa was then filled, and would become the main street of Dubrovnik: the Stradun.
Concerning modern history, on the 22nd of December, 1990, the Parliament proclaimed Franjo Tuđman President of Croatia, and issued a new Constitution. On the 19th of May, 1991, a referendum authorizes Croatian leaders to continue confederation talks with Yugoslavia or, in case of a failure, to proclaim the independence of Croatia.
Ultimately, at the beginning of 1992, the independence of Croatia is recognized by the international community, at the same time as Slovenia's.A war was then initiated. In Croatia, the fights opposing the Serbs and the Croats had higher stakes in the city of Vukovar, and the Krajina entity.
The liberation of the Croatian territory begins in the summer of 1995, and would last until early 1998. In 1995, Croatia signs the Dayton Agreements with Serbs and Bosnians, which guarantee the conditions of peace in Bosnia-Herzegovina.
Since the year 2000, Croatia has been trying to appear on the international stage, and has targeted the European Union. Following the positive results (by 66%) of a referendum held in Croatia in January 2012, the country became the 28th member of the EU on the 1st of July, 2013.